Bioactive Compounds || What is Bioactive Compounds|| CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

Bioactive Compounds || What is Bioactive Compounds|| CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

Bioactive Compounds || What is Bioactive Compounds|| CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

Bioactive Compounds:

Definition:

A variety of chemicals are found in small quantities in plants and in specific foods (such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and fats). Biotic compounds have effects on the body that can promote good health. They are being studied to prevent cancer, heart disease and other diseases.
Important Bioactive Compounds:
There are many bioactive Compounds but few are explain below;

Flavonoids: 

Flavonoids are polyphenols that are naturally found in plants. Are antioxidants. They have no direct involvement with growth either plant development. They are plant nutrients that are consumed in Fruit and vegetable form are non-toxic as well as beneficial to humans body. They are widely distributed in plants and are responsible for the vibrant colors of flowers and fruits. Protects plants from microbes and insects. They trigger the production of enzymes that fight disease and reduce it the risk of cancer, heart disease and age-related degenerative diseases. Foods rich in flavonoids include blueberries, blackberries, red beans, red and yellow fruits and vegetables and nuts. Also, red wine and some teas contain flavonoids.

Terpenoids:

Terpenoids are natural organic chemicals. They consist of isoprene units with five carbons assembled and modified into different ones ways. They are widely used for their aromatic qualities in perfumes and food flavors. They have antibacterial functions and other pharmaceutical products and are used in medicines. Terpenoids are responsible for the odor of eucalyptus and lemon grass and the aromas of cinnamon, cloves, ginger, lemon, orange and mint. Well known examples of terpenoids are citral, menthol and camphor.

Alkaloids:

Alkaloids are naturally occurring compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. They may contain oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, bromine and phosphorus. They are manufactured in large numbers organisms such as bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. Most alkaloids are bitter taste. Many alkaloids are toxic to other organisms. Most of the known functions the number of alkaloids is related to protection. For example, the presence of alkaloids a the plant prevents insects and animals from eating it. They also regulate plants growth. Alkaloids are used as medicines and recreational drugs.Examples of local anesthetic and stimulants - cocaine; stimulants - caffeine and nicotine. Injectable - morphine; antibacterial - berberine; anticancer compound - vincristine; anti-hypersensitive agent - reservoir; antispasmodic agent - atropine; vasodilator - vincamine; and anti-depressant drug - quinine.

Coumarins: 

Coumarin is a chemical compound found in plants such as vanilla grass, sweet grass and sweet clover. It has a sweet, bitter sweet smell properties of suppressing taste and appetite Biological activities reported for coumarins include anti-HIV, anti-tumors, antihypertension, anti-inflammatory, anti-osteoporosis, and antiseptic analgesic. Coumarin are used as anticoagulant and rodent medicines.

Tannins: 

Tannins are polyphenols obtained from different different parts plants. Tannins are abundant in the bark of the tree, wood, fruits, leaves and roots. Tannins are used to convert the skin of animals into the skin by chemicals processes (tanning). They are also used in painting, photography, refining beer and wine, and as an astringent in medicines. I'm an important one component of tea. These are added to processed foods such as ice cream and caramel. Tannins decrease the absorption of some materials from the body and are, therefore, also known as anti-nutrients. Too much consumption of her tea coffee can lead to calcium and iron deficiency and can lead to osteoporosis and anemia. They have antiseptic properties and are applied to the skin to cure burns and stop the bleeding. It is applied to the skin to remove poisons from bees bites. Herbs containing tannins are used as mouthwashes and glasses. They are also used to cure diarrhea. Tannins also find use as preservatives. They prevent rot in dry wood and skin. Protects plants by repelling insects and animals. Bacteria and the fungi cannot grow on plants that contain tannin.

Carotenoids:

Carotenoids are tetraterpenoids (contain 40 carbon atoms) organic pigments from chloroplasts and chromoplasts from plants and algae, some types of fungi and bacteria. Carotenoids that contain oxygen, such as lutein and zeaxanthin, are known as xanthophylls. Carotenoids do not which contain oxygen, such as x-carotene, b-carotene and lycopene, are known as carotenes. Carotene contains only carbon and hydrogen. The best known carotenoid is the carotene found in carrots, which is responsible for their bright orange color. Palm oil is the richest source of carotenoids in nature. The carotene has a yellow, orange or red color. Xanthophylls are often yellow. The carotenoid pigments in the mature leaves are not obviously due to chlorophyll. However, when chlorophyll is not present, ca. in young leaves and dying leaves (autumn leaves), yellow, orange and red carotenoid colors are predominant. These colors also predominate in ripe fruits such as oranges, tomatoes and bananas. Pink color of salmon and the red color of the cooked lobsters is due to the carotenoids. Carotenoids absorb light energy for use in photosynthesis. They have antioxidant activity and improves the vertebrate immune system. dietary lipids are essential for carotenoid bioavailability. Oils (as lipid sources) improves carotenoid absorption in humans. Carotenoid degradation products are the key compounds that contribute to the smell of flowers and are used in the perfume industry. Sweet floral scents present in black tea, aged tobacco, grapes and other fruits are due to aromatic compounds resulting from carotenoid breakdown.

Steroids: 

Steroids are organic compounds composed of twenty carbon atoms glued together in the form of four molten rings. They are found in plants, animals and fungi. Sterols are steroids with a hydroxyl group, for example, cholesterol. Other examples of steroids: sex hormones such as testosterone and progesterone, calciferol, ergosterol, stigmasterol. Most medicines with medical steroids are corticosteroids. They regulate metabolism and immune function, some helps maintain blood volume and control electrolyte renal excretion, while others increase muscle and bone synthesis. Cholesterol, which modulates the fluidity of cell membranes, is the main constituent of plaques stored in atherosclerosis.

Lignina: 

Lignina is a complex chemical compound obtained from wood. Is a abundant organic polymer. It fills the spaces in the cell wall giving Mechanical power. It plays an important role in the management of water in installations strains. It has a significant role in the carbon cycle. It decomposes very slowly and contributes to the decomposition of large quantities of humus.Strongly lignified wood is durable and serves as a good raw material for many applications. It is an excellent fuel. The pulp used to make the fingerprint contains lignin.

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