Islamophobia: making Muslims the enemy || Current Affairs || CSS/PCS/PMS

Islamophobia: making Muslims the enemy || Current Affairs || CSS/PCS/PMS

Islamophobia: making Muslims the enemy || Current Affairs || CSS/PCS/PMS

Islamophobia: making Muslims the enemy:

There are more and more books about Islamophobia and they serve as a limited counterweight to the best-selling growth after 9/11 that are consolidating stereotypical "what went wrong" scenarios. This small volume by Gottschalk and Greenberg is a great learning tool for classroom use, not just because it offers an easily accessible narrative about the American stereotype of Islam and Muslims, but because of the focus on political caricature. After the introduction, which sets definition of Islamophobia, the first chapter presents fast, but broad, review of the historical representation of Islam in the West. It starts with a shortcut takes into account the rise of Islam and its long interaction with Christianity. author's notes the slandering of Muhammad by Dante, the causes of the crusades, Reconquist's influence in Spain, in particular European imperial expansion The British Paradise in the Middle East, as a battlefield during the Cold War, issued an oil embargo, Zionism and the state of Israel and the "war on terror" were overstated. Students will learn a number of facts that may surprise them, such as a note that Muslim slaves came to America before the first English colonists.

This historical summary defines the section of the chapter used to represent the symbols Islam and Muslims, especially in political cartoons, illustrate this abundantly. In political cartoons, the main symbols associated with Islam begin with its cigar curved sword. Ironically, as the authors point out, the Arab warriors used a straight line. the sword from the beginning of the crusade, and the curved sword serves as a symbol for the United States.

Officers of the Marine Corps, but the symbols have survived resonance, not a factual basis. Other symbolic images are the mosque, focusing on the 2001 Tony Auth cartoon in which the Taliban minaret is double as fortified watchtower , crescent, veil and clearly American Uncle Sam and Lady Liberty used. The third chapter begins with discussion on the Hollywood movie The Siege (1998), which includes the positive aspect Muslim character, or more precisely, the one who is good because he does not work religious. In this chapter, we explore stereotypes and cartoons, noting in short, however, because of the similarity between anti-Semitic performances of Jews and Nazis later caricatures of fanatical Arabs. The next film analyzed is Rambo III (1988) who treat Afghan mujahedin with sympathy at the time they were fight against Soviet communists. By studying the images of Saudis and Talibans, the authors show how Muslims are usually defined by "rejecting everyone's will". contemporary things ".

One of the leading providers of exotic stereotypes for other Americans recipients is National Geographic, which published the volume immediately after The 9/11 tragedy that exhorted Muslims, using camel motifs, pulling forbidden women, religious rituals, social confusion and violence. Unfortunately, the authors do not seem to be aware of the important study of such images from The National Geographic Story by Linda Steet, Veils and Daggers: A Century of Representation of the National Geographic Arab World (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2000). The main weakness of Gottschalk and Greenberg is that it is not based on early studies, especially post-colonial and literary studies, stereotypes such as Tzvetana Todorova's work. No theory Incorporation into critical theory will disappoint other scholars, but it will make the text even bigger available to students who think they would be the main public.

These are: the Nasser crisis in Egypt on the Suez Canal in 1956-1958, the oil embargo in 1973-1974, the revolution in Iran and the hostage crisis and after September 11 in Afghanistan and Iraq. After discussing the role of caricature and symbolic representation, these are the reasons they carefully study and provide examples that students could develop on their own for other cases. The proposal is a call for mutual understanding. Violent reactions to such controversies as Danish fairy tales are rejected.Bibliographic references on this topic that would be valuable for further study of students.

A missing text that covers part of the same reason, but for Arabic comics is Allen Douglas and the Arab Municipality of Fedwa Maltese-Douglas Strips: Politics of the Emerging Mass Culture (Bloomington: Indiana University), 1994). This would be a favorable text for licensing courses on Islam or the Middle East, because it is available and is approaching a popular art form that has a tight universal appeal. Although currently only available in hardback format, the price is reasonable. Methodologically, there are two weaknesses in the text. The first is the problem of sampling. The illustrations selected illustrate the comments made, but many more it is necessary to discuss how they were chosen. Although there are some examples should be given cartoons that criticize American Islamophobia useful to see how the editorial inclination of the newspapers or unions involved it influences such criticisms.

A second weakness is certainly not for the purpose of the text, is the lack of comparison with political cartoons of Muslims. There is an extension corpus of such cartoons, largely archived to support Arab content and Muslim fanaticism. But beyond politics, even recognizing that there is a "fulcrum" of asymmetrical power ” in the game, to what extent is the nature of the genre appeared satirical and caustic? If there is a brush brush in the paper for the father cartoons, as illustrated in the Iranian artistic retaliation to claim holocaust cartoons, there seems to be no hope that this environment can do other than perpetuating and deepening the opposing phobias. Or, it is the fact that it can laughs at the ray of hope by which such stereotypes could be mitigated ridiculous joint? I noted an error on if the sentence should read that there is one the equation of "Arabs with Islam", not the "evidence" of Muslims with Islam. "

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