Mughal Era History and Background || Pakistan Affairs || CSS/PCS/PMS

Mughal Era History and Background || Pakistan Affairs || CSS/PCS/PMS

Mughal Era History and Background || Pakistan Affairs || CSS/PCS/PMS

Mughal Era:

The Mughal Emperor was founded by Babur, Prince of Timurid and ruler of Central Asia. Babar, along with his father, escaped directly to the Timurid Emperor Timurleun, and alongside his mother was Genghis Khan, the Mongol ruler. Having escaped from his ancestors in Turkey through Shibani Khan, 14-year-old Prince Babar went to India to fulfill his wishes. He was based in Kabul and then relocated to India via Afghanistan via Khyber Kotal. After his victory at Panipat in the year 1526, Babar's forces occupied much of northern India. However, concerns about wars and military campaigns did not allow the new emperor.

Profit consolidation achieved in India. Imperial instability was led by his son Humayun, expelled by a rebel in Persia. The expulsion of Humon from Persia established diplomatic relations between the Spavid and Mughal tribes and strengthened the cultural influence of West Asia in the Mughal court. General Chet Chet Lounge, son of Humayun Akbar, ascended the throne under the command of Beggar Khan, who helped establish the Mughal Empire in India.

As a result of war and communications, Akbar was able to extend the empire to all sides and control the territory of India around the Godavari River. He created a loyal ruling elite, led a modern administration and encouraged cultural development. Increased trade with European trading companies. Abraham Eraly, an Indian historian, wrote that foreigners were often impressed by the fabulous wealth of the Mughal court, but that the shiny court concealed a darker reality, namely that about a quarter of the empire's gross national product was 655 families, while 120 million live in poverty. In 1578, while hunting for tigers, considered a religious experience, he suffered from epilepsy, Akbar became angry with Islam and adopted a mixture of Hinduism and Islam. At the court of Akbar, he allowed freedom of religion and tried to resolve the socio-political and cultural differences of his empire, creating a new religion Din-i-Ilahi, which has the characteristics of prevailing worship. He left his son in a stable condition that was in the middle of his golden age.

Akbar's son Jahongir is "opium poppy", ignoring public administration and half of his rivals belong to the political party. The glory of the Mughal court arose over Jahongir's son Jahan's son; as shown by the Taj Mahal. The cost of maintaining the court, however, began to outweigh the income. Shah Jahan's eldest son, the freedman Dara Shikoh, took office in 1658, because of his father's illness. Dara fought for Akbar's Din-i Ilahi. With the support of the Islamic religion, Shah Jahan's youngest son, Aurangzeb, took power. Aurangzeb defeated Dara in 1659 and had him killed. Although Shah Jahan has fully recovered from the illness, Aurangzeb said he could not rule and put him in jail.

During Aurangzeb's reign, the empire regained political power and overtook China and became the world's largest economy, over a quarter of world GDP, as well as the richest empire in the world, but the establishment of full Sharia and The introduction of jizya by Fatwa Alamgiri has provoked controversy. Aurangzeb expanded the empire to include almost all of South Asia, but a few years after his death, in 1707, "many parts of the empire were in open revolt." Aurangzeb made no attempt to reclaim his ancestors in Central Asia, and his successful conquest of the Deccan region increased the empire by about 4,400,000 km2. Another problem for Aurangzeb was that the army always relied on the aristocracy held by the country of northern India, which provided the cavalry for the campaigns, and the empire had nothing equivalent to the yenic body of the Ottoman Empire.

The long and costly conquest of the Deccan far outweighed the "aura of success" that surrounded Aurangzeb, and since the end of the seventeenth century, the aristocracy is becoming more and more willing to offer forces for the wars of the empire, because the prospect of being rewarded with the earth the result of a successful war was seen as less likely.These aristocrats who did not receive any land confiscated as a reward and for which the conquest of the Deccan had cost dearly, feeling strongly. dissatisfied and did not want to participate in subsequent campaigns. Aurangzeb's son Shah Alam abrogated his father's religious policies and tried to reform the administration. However, after his death in 1712, the Mughal dynasty sank into violent chaos and feuds.

During the reign of Muhammad Shah, the empire began to collapse, and large areas of central India passed from Mughal to Marath. The Mughal war has always been based on heavy siege artillery, heavy cavalry for offensive operations and light cavalry for skirmishes and air strikes. In order to control the region, the Mughals have always sought to occupy a strategic fortress in a region that would serve as the node from which the Mughal army would emerge to defeat any enemy that challenges the empire. Not only was this system expensive, but it also made the army somewhat inflexible, because it was assumed that the enemy would always retreat to the fortress to be besieged or engage in a constant battle for annihilation in the open air.

 The Hindu marathons were experienced riders, who refused to participate in elemental battles, but rather engaged in war campaigns, invasion war, ambushes and attacks on Mughal supply lines. The Marathas could not take over the Mughal fortress during a storm or formal siege, because they did not have artillery, but by continually capturing the supply columns, they managed to starve the Mughal fortress to surrender. The Mogol commanders later refused to adapt their tactics and develop an adequate strategy to combat the insurgents, which resulted in the Moguls losing more ground to Marathy. Nader Shahof Persia's Indian campaign ended in Sack Delhi and destroyed the remains of Moguls power and prestige, dramatically accelerating its fall and worrying other distant invaders, including later British.

Many of the empire's elites have now tried to control their own businesses and separate from independent kingdoms. However, the Mughal emperor remained the highest manifestation of sovereignty. Not only the Muslim nobility, but also the leaders of the Maratians, Hindus and Sikhs took part in the solemn recognition of the emperor as ruler of India [14]. The rulers of the Kingdom, Mysore Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan, who sought loyalty to French Napoleon and fought in Anglo-Mysore wars, drafted the Mujahideen Fath and pioneered the various powerful weapons. Both are considered the first Indian freedom fighters and the last effective Islamic leaders in India.

Over the next few decades, Afghans, Sikhs and Marathas fought each other and the Mughals to prove the disintegration of the empire. Emperor Mughal Shah Alam II made futile attempts to reverse the fall of Mughal and eventually sought protection from outside forces. In 1784, under the leadership of Mahadji Scindia, Maratas was recognized as the defender of the Emperor of Delhi, a situation which lasted until the Anglo-Marathas during World War II. Then the British East India Society became a defender of the Mughal clan in Delhi. After suppression under the leadership of 1857-1858, the last magician, Bahadur Shah Zafar, was removed from the British government, which officially took control of much of the former empire, signaling the beginning of British paradise. .

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