Simla Deputation (1906) Background | Simla Deputation (1906) History | CSS/PCS/PMS

Simla Deputation (1906) Background | Simla Deputation (1906) History | CSS/PCS/PMS

Simla Deputation (1906) Background | Simla Deputation (1906) History | CSS/PCS/PMS

Simla Deputation:


➥ A turning point in the history of modern Muslim India and the Hindu-Muslim conflict has moved to the constitutional plane.
➥ Act on Indian Councils of 1892 (Indian majority due to joint electorate)
➥ Partition of Bengal, 1905.
➥ Victory of the Liberal Party in 1905.
➥ John Morley (Secretary of State for India) in July 1906. He announced constitutional reforms in India.
➥ Hajji Ismael's letter to Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk.

Preparation for Simla Deputation:

➥ Organizing meetings with Muslim personalities such as Mohsin-ul-Mulk, Waqar-ul-Mulk and Agha Khan.
➥ Mohsin-ul-Mulk received a monument signed by 1411183 Muslims from Peshawar to Bihar.
➥ Mr. Archbold (director of M.A.O College) contacted the private secretary of Viceroy Dunlop Smith and arranged a meeting of Muslims with Lord Minto.

The Deputation:

➥ A Muslim delegation of 35 leaders, led by Sir Agh Khan, met the viceroy Lord Minto in Simla on October 1, 1906. Simli delegation project was written by Syed Ali Bilgrami. They submitted the following requests.
1. Muslims should have the right to vote under a separate electoral system.
2. Muslims should be represented on the Imperial Legislative Council in numbers exceeding their population.
3. The electoral system should take precedence over the nomination system as possible.
4. Muslims should be given due participation in observed and non-observed cadres.
5. Muslims should be appointed as judges of higher courts as well as main courts.
6. Places should be reserved for Muslims in the Senate and Syndicate of various universities.
7. Provide financial assistance for establishing a Muslim university.
8. Muslims should be represented on the viceroy's executive council.

Results of Simla's Deputation:

➥ A separate electorate was adopted at Minto-Morley Reforms in 1909.
➥ He created unity among Muslims.
➥ Hindu-Muslim conflicts have risen to a constitutional level.
➥ Distrust of Indians.
➥ The basis for establishing the Muslim League.

Indian reaction:

➥ The Hindus did everything in their power to slander Sim's deputy, claiming that the British government had developed it to resist all the activities of the Indian National Congress.


Lord Minto was appointed representative of India in 1905. He announced new reforms, saying that the British government would expand the chosen rule. Anti-party agitation convinced Muslims of the futility of expecting an honest game from the Hindu majority. Therefore, to protect their interests, Muslim leaders developed a plan for special voters for their community and on October 1, 1906, they were presented by Minto deputies in Simla, a group of 70 members led by the Muslim community and Sir Aga Khan. Representatives' requests were accepted. Acceptance of demands turned out to be a turning point in the history of the subcontinent. The Hindu-Muslim conflict first came to the constitutional level. Muslims have clearly stated that they do not trust the Hindu majority and are not ready to give their future into the hands of the supposedly selected assembly of the homogeneous Indian people. In this sense, the beginning of a separate electorate can be regarded as the beginning of the implementation of the theory of two nations, and its final and inevitable consequence is the division of British India in 1947.
The Simla deputy was a success because Muslims were urged to protect their separate identity, while the British responded to their demands because Lord Minto wanted to get them out of political discontent. Separate electorates received statutory recognition in the 1909 Indian Councils Act. Muslims were granted not only the right to choose their representatives by separate electorates, but also the right to vote in constituencies. In addition, they received a representative weight.

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