Biodiversity refers to the diversity and abundance of living organisms specific region. It has a size exceeding all limits. Exact the number of species present at global level is still ambiguous. Number it can range from 10 to 100 million and is a product of 4 billion years evolution. The term 'biodiversity' was first used by nature scientists and conservationist Raymond F. Dasmann in 1968 book "Other country" recommending protection. Term biodiversity has been contracted with biodiversity; was invented by W.G. Rosen in 1985. Biodiversity is not easy to pinpoint, but rather diverse ecological indicators such as the number of species in the area are used quantify various aspects of biodiversity. This is important for the body interactions and each of them plays a role in the web of life. Biodiversity is very high key to human survival. Although it is late, people now value biodiversity For many reasons:

  1. People depend on other types of food, fiber and medicine.
  2. Species are necessary for the functioning of ecosystems and many others benefits and services that ecosystems provide to humanity.
  3. People derive great aesthetic pleasure from interaction organisms.
  4. Extinction deprives us of the opportunity to study and understand ecological relationships between organisms.

Living in a way that causes other species to become extinct is a huge loss because these species have a specific value.
Traditionally, three main levels of biodiversity are distinguished.
(i) Genetic diversity
(ii) Diversity of species
(iii) The diversity of ecosystems
An additional level has recently been added, i.e.
(iv) Molecular diversity

Ecosystem and Biodiversity

Ecosystem processes are controlled by plant diversity and types, animal and microbial species living within the community. Increased biodiversity ecosystem productivity in which every species, no matter how small, has an important role to play. For example, a large number of plant species means greater crop diversity; greater species diversity ensures sustainable development for all life forms; greater sustainability means a healthy ecosystem; healthy ecosystem can withstand and recover from disasters.

The Convention on Life on Earth. Human modifications in a living community and collective biodiversity Earth can change the ecosystem. Changing the ecosystem will change ecological functions. Healthy biodiversity provides many natural ones services for all that are necessary for the well-being of human societies.

Biodiversity and Human Health:

The ecosystem provides life support systems for life; in addition this cleans air and fresh water, binds and detoxifies poisonous substance, breaks down waste and recycling of nutrients on land and oceans, pollinates crops and natural vegetation make the soil fertile and store carbon.

  • Biodiversity supports food security, dietary health and livelihood sustainable development: the ecosystem is the basis for the development of crops and food security and promotes resistance and resistance to environmental stress, including pests and crop diseases and livestock. Diets based on the diversity of food species promote health and can help protect against disease by solving the problem micronutrient and vitamin deficiencies. Loss of agriculture biodiversity can therefore endanger health, livelihoods and maintenance our future food and nutrition safety.
  • Biodiversity provides important resources for medical research: Research Wildlife anatomy, physiology and biochemistry can lead to important ones changes in medicines for people.
  • Biodiversity provides important resources for both traditional and modern medicine: from wild species to modern medicine in addition to one another, a painkiller (zinconitide from Kinetic straw toxin), cardiovascular medicine (linuxin with digital plants) and sugar. Disease treatment (laser oxenatide) is included.
  • Biodiversity plays a role in the regulation and control of infectious diseases diseases: In recent years, an outbreak of SARS, ebola, bird flu and malaria has been attributed to human influences on biodiversity, wildlife trade or unsustainable land use change.
  • Biodiversity is socially, culturally and spiritually important in communities: awareness of environmental values   and respect for other organisms is linked to the reduction of social violence in children and young adults.

Biodiversity and Economics:

In July 2010, the first global biodiversity symposium in London was explored the role of biodiversity in business opportunities and threats. Industry is generally interested in a reasonable use of natural resources in exploitation profitability, without adversely affecting biodiversity. Biodiversity is fundamental to economics.G8 states, with 5 major emissions The economies (China, India, South Africa, Brazil and Mexico) comprise about three quarters. Bio-capacity of the earth. It is estimated that 40% of the world is monopoly On biological products or processes.

Biodiversity and Agriculture:

About 80% of human food supply comes from just 20 types of plants; people use at least 40,000 species as food, shelter and clothing. Crop diversity promotes regeneration when a dominant variety is attacked by disease or predator. In the past, plague of Irish potatoes in 1846 was caused by the plantation of two potato varieties, 6,273 varieties were screened for resistance to rice grass stunt virus; only one resistant Indian variety was selected and crossed other varieties. Monoculture was a factor contributing to several agricultural products disaster. Bees provide great benefits to humanity and agriculture. This is the basic species that fertilizes food producing plants. The interdependence between bees, man and agriculture is very important summarized by scientists.

Biodiversity and Sustainable Development:

Sustainable development is one way of meeting the human needs of resources environmental protection for the availability of resources future generations. Sustainable development has three components:environmental sustainability, economic and socio-political sustainability Sustainable development. There is an urgent need to develop guidelines principles for sustainable use of biodiversity. These are the rules it must be adapted to the different human societies and biomes, and thus open modifications and improvements, as appropriate. Through adaptation and constantly In this type of process, the chances of utilization are maximized biodiversity will be sustainable in the long term. Required Civil society and governments understand that it is sustainable use a prerequisite for achieving the broader goal of sustainable development development.

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