GREEN CHEMISTRY || Tools used in Green Chemistry || CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

GREEN CHEMISTRY || Tools used in Green Chemistry || CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

GREEN CHEMISTRY || Tools used in Green Chemistry || CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

GREEN CHEMISTRY:

Green chemistry is a special type of pollution prevention. Applies to designing chemical products and processes that limit or eliminate use and the production of hazardous substances. Has been used in a wide range industrial and consumer goods, including paints, dyes, fertilizers, pesticides, plastics, medicines, electronics, dry cleaning, energy production and water purification. A hazard is simply another property of a chemical. Like properties chemicals are due to their specific molecular structure they can be modified by changing this structure. Different types of threats that can be supported by Green Chemistry include physical hazards (explosive or flammable), toxicity (carcinogenic, carcinogenic or lethal) or global threats (climate change or ozone layer depletion in the stratosphere). How the substance may have a low melting point or green color also be designed as non-toxic.

Tools used in Green Chemistry

When choosing an alternative blended style, we do not focus on the good Molecule, but on the artificial way to create it. Improvement Practice can take you to the same product, but reduce or eliminate toxins Materials, products and waste. You can use the following tools Change practice.

1. Alternative Feedstocks (Starting Materials):

Choice of raw material, i.e. the starting material used to manufacture the product is determined what risks will be handled when using this substance. The raw material must be evaluated to determine whether it has chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, ecotoxicity, etc. Currently, most organic chemicals are made from petroleum derivatives. Crude oil oxidizes during conversion to useful organic chemicals. This oxidation stage is one of the most chemical synthesis stages polluting the environment. Contributed to risks to human health and the environment, mainly through use heavy metals such as chromium as oxidizing agents. That's why it's important to reduce the consumption of petroleum products. Agricultural and biological raw materials are excellent alternative starting materials. They are already there strongly oxygenated. Therefore, their use eliminates the need for contamination oxygenation stage. Raw material or raw material should be renewable than exhaustion. Oil and other fossil-based raw materials are running low raw materials based on biomass and agricultural waste are renewable. Today, many agricultural products such as soybeans, potatoes, and corn molasses is processed by various processes into the consumer products such as fabrics, nylon etc.

2. Alternative Reagents:

Opportunities for the integration of alternative applicants are increasing. For example, heavy metals used in petroleum oxidation processes are highly toxic and carcinogenic. They are replaced by light to make the desired change.


3. Alternative Solvents:

Many solvents commonly used in synthesis are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that cause smog when released in air. People with breathing problems suffer from great environmental impact. Solvents such as methylene chloride, chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, benzene, etc. have been identified as suspected of being carcinogenic to humans. Applications of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) include both cleaning solvent, propellant gas, plastic blowing foam molding, and cooling. CFCs have very low direct toxicity to humans and wildlife, and are also non-flammable and non-explosive. However, CFCs are known causes of ozone depletion. Some alternatives to these organic solvents include the use of supercritical or thick phase fluids, such as supercritical carbon dioxide. This system is not harmful from the point of view of human health and the environment.

4. Alternative Product (Target Molecule):

By designing safer chemicals (target molecules), the goal is to maximize functional benefits particles and minimize or eliminate its toxicity or other hazards. done by identifying the part or parts of the molecule that produce toxic effects, and also those responsible for the desired function. Part related to the toxic effect can be avoided or changed accordingly to reduce or eliminate toxic effect. Another way to reduce the hazardous effects of a substance is to minimize it bioavailability. If the toxic substance is unable to reach the target organ (e.g. heart, lungs, liver), where it can manifest its toxicity, and then it is rendered harmless for all purposes. By changing physical and chemical properties molecules, like water solubility and polarity, absorption molecules across biological membranes and tissues can be difficult or impossible. Elimination of absorption and bioavailability leads to a reduction in toxicity.

5. Green Analytical Chemistry:

Detection, measurement and monitoring of chemical substances in the environment is carried out using analytical chemistry.Instead of identifying environmental problems after they occur, Green Chemistry aims to prevent the formation of toxic substances. Even small amounts of toxic substances are detected by sensors, and process controls are regulated to minimize or stop its formation.

6. Alternative Catalysts:

Catalysis has increased the level of chemical synthesis efficiency and has also brought environmental benefits. The use of new catalysts has eliminated the need for large amounts of reagents that would otherwise be required to carry out these syntheses. Such large amounts of regents would increase most of the waste stream.

7. Minimal Energy Requirements:

The energy requirements of the synthetic procedure should be minimized as the production and consumption of energy
bring a significant environmental effect. The advantage of using a catalyst is that it reduces the activation energy needed to carry out the reaction, and thus minimizes the thermal energy required for transformation. Microwave energy is currently used to quickly carry out chemical reactions and generally in a solid state. This eliminates the long-lasting heating necessary to carry out the reaction. Due to the use of ultrasonic energy, the conditions of the reagents change significantly to accelerate the chemical transformation.

8. Alternative Methodology:

Avoid unnecessary use of blocking groups, protecting groups, additional functional groups, as this requires the use of (often hazardous) materials to produce the substance and generates waste in the regeneration process of the original substance. Some methods use toxic chemicals such as cyanide or chlorine. In addition, these methods sometimes generate large amounts of hazardous waste. For example, the pulp and paper industry uses chlorine compounds in processes that produce toxic chlorinated organic waste. Green chemists have developed a new technology that converts wood pulp to paper with oxygen, water and polyoxomethane salts. Water and carbon dioxide are the only by-products. Chemicals used in the chemical process should be selected so as to minimize the risk of chemical accidents, including explosions and fires.

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