Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids || Properties of Metals, Non-Metals || CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids || Properties of  Metals, Non-Metals || CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids || Properties of  Metals, Non-Metals || CSS/PCS/PMS/IAS

Metals, Non-Metals and Metalloids:

Depending on their properties, substances can be classified as metals, nonmetals
and metalloids.

Metals: 

The solvent, dual and electric substance is called iron. Gold, silver, iron, copper, tank, lead, sodium and uranium are just some examples of metals. Aluminum is a very large metal in the earth's crust. Other major metals in the reservoir are iron, calcium, sodium, potassium and magnesium.

Important Properties of Metals:

(I) The metals are malleable, i.e. they can be beaten into thin sheets. Gold and silver are the most malleable metals. Aluminum and copper are next on the list. Silver foils are used to decorate sweets.
Aluminum foils are used for packing chocolates, biscuits, medicines, cigarettes etc. Aluminum and
copper sheets are used for making dishes. Iron sheets are used to make many different products, such as boxes, buckets, tanks, etc.
(ii) Metals are plastic, i.e. they can be drawn into thin wires. Gold and silver show the highest ductility, and then copper and aluminum. Copper and aluminum wires are used in the electrical wiring.
(Iii) Metals are good heat and electricity conductors. Silver metal was rated as the best heat conductor, followed by copper and aluminum. That is why kitchen utensils are usually made made of copper or aluminum. Silver is the best conductor of electricity. Copper comes next, followed by gold, aluminum and tungsten. The electric wires are therefore made of copper and aluminum. Iron and mercury have lower electrical conductivity.
(Iv) Metals are gloss. Gold, silver and copper have a shiny surface and can be polished. They are
used for making jewelry and decorative elements. After a long holding of air, the metals lose theirs
they shine due to the formation of an oxide, sulfide or carbonate layer due to the action of various
gases present in the air.
(v) Metals are hard, except for sodium and potassium, which are soft metals and can be cut with a knife.
(vi) Metals are solids at room temperature. Mercury is an exception. It is the only metal that is liquid
in room temperature.
(Vii) Metals generally have high melting and boiling points. The exceptions are sodium and potassium, which have low melting points. The melting points of gallium and cesium are so low that they begin to melt hand.

Non-Metals: 

An element that is not plastic or ductile and has no current conduction is not of metal. Coal, sulfur, hydrogen, oxygen, chlorine and iodine are some examples of non-metals. Diamond and graphite they are also non-metals. They are allotropic forms of carbon. Coal is very much important non-metal because carbon compounds such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and enzymes etc. Oxygen is necessary for breathing and fuel combustion. Sulfur is present in hair, wool, onions and garlic. The major non-metals in the earth's crust in descending order wealth is oxygen, silicon, phosphorus and sulfur.

Important Properties of Non-Metals

(i) Non-metals are fragile. For this reason, they cannot be beaten into thin sheets or pulled into wires fragility.
(Ii) Non-metals are bad conductors of heat and electricity. Many non-metals are insulators. They exist a few exceptions. For example, diamond is a good heat conductor and graphite is a good conductor electric energy. Graphite is therefore used to produce electrodes in dry cells.
(iii) Non-metals have a matte appearance, i.e. they do not have gloss. Iodine is an exception. It has shiny surface liken metal.
(iv) Non-metals are quite soft. The exception is carbon in the form of a diamond. In fact, the diamond is the hardest known natural substance.
(v) Non-metals may exist as solids (e.g. carbon, sulfur and phosphorus), liquids (e.g. bromine) and  gases (e.g. hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and chlorine).
(vi) Non-metals have a low melting and boiling point, except for graphite with a very high melting point point.
(vii) Non-metals have many different colors. Sulfur is yellow, phosphorus is white or red, graphite is black, chlorine is yellowish green, bromine is reddish brown, hydrogen and oxygen are colorless.

Metalloids: 

Elements exhibiting certain metal properties and some non-metals, i.e. intermediate properties between metal and non-metal properties, are called metalloids. For example, although they look like metals, they are brittle as non-metals. Instead of being good conductors of electricity such as metals or insulators such as non-metals, they are semiconductors. Boron, silicon and germanium are examples of metalloids.

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